Only around 38 per cent of Afghans are literate and so broadcast outlets dominate the country’s media scene.
Television viewing has now overtaken radio listening, though the latter remains important, especially in rural areas where most Afghans still live.
As BBC Monitoring’s Afghanistan Media Guide for 2017 explains, most media outlets are privately-owned. State-owned media, whether broadcast or print, are increasingly marginal.
As international attention on Afghanistan wanes, religious conservatives, insurgents, officials and powerbrokers could pose a rising threat to freedom.
Internet usage is growing, with access boosted by the rollout of 3G mobile, Facebook is very popular among young people and the political elite.
Researched and written by BBCM’s country specialist, the Afghanistan Media Guide provides overviews of the broadcasting, press and online sectors, along with extensive listings of individual broadcast channels, publications and online sources.